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Listed on Mar 12,2019
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Level gauge is a device which is used to show the level of fluids in fields. Depending on the type of application used, the type of level gauge should be selected. Level gauge is a direct method for measuring the level. Level gauge consists of a metal body, machined to have an internal chamber and one or more front windows. On each window a sp...
Listed on Mar 12,2019
By Admin
Metal Seated Ball Valves Engineered to excel in the most demanding industrial settings where valve deficiencies can endanger safety, plant efficiency and reduce profitability, metal seated ball valves stand out. These long-lasting valves are perfect for the oil and gas industries, refining and power generation. Metal Seated Valves vs. So...
Listed on Feb 28,2019
By Admin
A variation on the theme of turbine flow measurement is the paddle wheel flowmeter, a very inexpensive technology usually implemented in the form of an insertion-type sensor. In this instrument, a small wheel equipped with “paddles” parallel to the shaft is inserted in the flow stream, with half the wheel shrouded from the flow. A surprisingly...
Listed on Feb 28,2019
By Admin
Differential pressure meters work on the principle of partially obstructing the flow in a pipe. This creates a difference in the static pressure between the upstream and downstream side of the device. This difference in the static pressure (referred to as the differential pressure) is measured and used to determine the flowrate. Differential-p...
Listed on Feb 22,2019
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Valves are mechanical devices. They are basic elements with which the flow of fluids and pressure within a system can be regulated. They are mainly used to control the direction of fluid flow as well regulate the amount fluid flowing through a particular system or a process. Valves perform any of the following functions. Starting and stop...
Listed on Feb 22,2019
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Valve actuators are devices used to position valves. They can be used to fully open and shut a valve, or in an application that requires constant and precise control, such as regulating the flow of fuel to a gas turbine, modulate the position of the valve. There are many applications that call for the use of actuators, such as: Automating...
Listed on Feb 15,2019
By Admin
It would be difficult to chart a career course in the industrial process control field without being exposed to thermocouples. They are the ubiquitous basic temperature measuring tools with which all process engineers and operators should be familiar. Knowing how thermocouples work, how to test them, is essential. Sooner or later, though, you ...
Listed on Feb 15,2019
By Admin
To select an ideal thermocouple first we need to understand the need of measurement application and requirement. Factors affecting temperature change Accuracy required- impact of sensor accuracy on overall measurement accuracy. Length of deployment Thermocouple material selection Selection of the Measuring Junction Du...
Listed on Feb 07,2019
By Admin
Hydraulic actuators use liquid pressure rather than instrument air pressure to apply force on the diaphragm to move the valve actuator and then to position valve stem. Nearly all hydraulic actuator designs use a piston rather than a diaphragm to convert fluid pressure into mechanical force. The high pressure rating of piston actuators len...
Listed on Feb 07,2019
By Admin
A valve actuator is the mechanism for opening and closing a valve. Manually operated valves require someone in attendance to adjust them using a direct or geared mechanism attached to the valve stem. Power-operated actuators, using air pressure, hydraulic pressure or electricity, allow a valve to be adjusted remotely, or allow rapid operation of la...
Listed on Jan 30,2019
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Differential pressure flowmeters are a type of inferential flowmeter where the flowrate is calculated from a non-flow measurement. In this case various methods of obstructing flow are used to create a pressure drop across a section of pipe. The flow rate is then easily calculated from the measured pressure drop using Bernoulli’s prinicple. Dif...
Listed on Jan 30,2019
By admin
An variable-area flowmeter is one where the fluid must pass through a restriction whose area increases with flow rate. This stands in contrast to flowmeters such as orifice plates and venturi tubes where the cross-sectional area of the flow element remains fixed. The simplest example of a variable-area flowmeter is the rotameter, which uses a ...
Listed on Jan 25,2019
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A shutdown valve (also referred to as SDV or Emergency Shutdown Valve, ESV, ESD, or ESDV) is an actuated valve designed to stop the flow of a hazardous fluid upon the detection of a dangerous event. Shutdown Valve This provides protection against possible harm to people, equipment or the environment. Shutdown valves form part of a Safety Inst...
Listed on Jan 25,2019
By admin
The method of representing, encoding, and transmitting the data is called the protocol. At the field level, the dominant protocols for process instruments are HART, FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 and PROFIBUS PA. Difference between Fieldbus, Profibus and HART Protocols Foundation Fieldbus is an all-digital, serial, two-way communications system ...
Listed on Jan 15,2019
By admin
Applied extensively in industrial process measurement and control, a rotameter is an instrument that uses a float of given density to establish, for any measurable flow rate, an equilibrium position within the fluid stream where the force of the flowing fluid equals the force of gravity. Let’s break that down a little. A rotameter has a tapere...
Listed on Jan 15,2019
By admin
Control Valve Basics – Types Valves are used for thousands of purposes, from simple and mundane tasks, such as turning on the water in a kitchen sink, to tasks as important and difficult as controlling water flow through a nuclear reactor. Regardless of the application, valves are crucial in controlling the flow of liquids and gases in everyda...
Listed on Jan 02,2019
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Limit Switch is a switch operated by the motion of a machine part or presence of an object. They are used for control of a machine, as safety interlocks, or to count objects passing a point. Standardized limit switches are industrial control components manufactured with a variety of operator types, including lever, roller plunger, and whisker ...
Listed on Jan 02,2019
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Ultrasonic is a non-contact level measurement method that uses sound waves to determine the process material being measured. Ultrasonic transmitters operate by sending a sound wave, generated from a piezo electric transducer, to the media being measured. The device measures the length of time it takes for the reflected sound wave to return to ...
Listed on Dec 28,2018
By admin
What is a vibration switch? A vibration switch is a device that recognizes the amplitude of the vibration to which it is exposed and provides some sort of response when this amplitude exceeds a predetermined threshold value. The switch response is typically an electrical contact closure or contact opening. The electrical contact may be either an e...
Listed on Dec 28,2018
By admin
A Differential Pressure Switch, just like a regular pressure switch, is a simple electro-mechanical device that operates on the basic principles of levers and opposite forces. Mainly, they are used for sensing a difference between two points in a process. Three key elements are used in various combinations to manufacture different kinds of differen...
Listed on Dec 19,2018
By admin
BRIEF EXPLANATION OF VIBRATION SENSOR PRINCIPLES: 1. VELOCITY SENSORS Electromagnetic linear velocity transducers : Typically used to measure oscillatory velocity. A permanent magnet moving back and forth within a coil winding induces an emf in the winding. This emf is proportional to the velocity of oscillation of the magnet. This permanent ...
Listed on Dec 19,2018
By admin
What is a Valve Actuator? A valve actuator is the device that is joined to the valve that converts motive power e.g. pneumatic power, into movement of the valve stem. This movement opens, closes or modulates the valve. Types of Actuators Valve actuators are generally split into one of four types, dependant on the motive force they receive, n...
Listed on Dec 07,2018
By admin
An instrumentation control system is an electrical, electronic, or programmable electronic system (E/E/PES) which may perform some or all of the following functions: Monitoring, recording and logging of plant status and process parameters; Provision of operator information regarding the plant status and process parameters; Provision ...
Listed on Dec 07,2018
By admin
A safety control system or device is deemed to be safety related if it provides functions which significantly reduce the risk of a hazard, and in combination with other risk reduction measures, reduces the overall risk to a tolerable level, or if it is required to function to maintain or achieve a safe state for the equipment under control (EUC). ...
Listed on Nov 30,2018
By admin
An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a device that either allows unimpeded flow or acts to prevent flow altogether. These valves are often used for routing process fluid to different locations, starting and stopping batch processes, and engaging automated safety (shutdown) functions. Valve styles commonly used for o...
Listed on Nov 30,2018
By admin
Flow Switch is a mechanical switch that is switched on or off in response to the flow or non-flow of a fluid such as air or water. The switch typically operates through the use of a paddle which gets displaced due to the force of fluid moving past it. The flow switch consists of a paddle system. which has a permanent magnet located at its uppe...
Listed on Nov 21,2018
By admin
Functions of Temperature Detectors Although the temperatures that are monitored vary slightly depending on the details of facility design, temperature detectors are used to provide three basic functions: indication, alarm, and control. The temperatures monitored may normally be displayed in a central location, such as a control room, and may have ...
Listed on Nov 21,2018
By admin
Thermocouples measure temperature and are used quite often in process controls. How They Work When wires of two different thermoelectrically homogeneous materials are joined at one end and placed in a temperature gradient, a thermoelectric voltage (EMF) is observed at the other end. The connection is called the measuring junction. On all ...
Listed on Nov 14,2018
By admin
Pressure Detector Functions Although the pressures that are monitored vary slightly depending on the details of facility design, all pressure detectors are used to provide up to three basic functions: indication, alarm, and control. Since the fluid system may operate at both saturation and subcooled conditions, accurate pressure indication must be...
Listed on Nov 14,2018
By admin
Vacuum Gauges where the Pressure Readings are Independent of the Type of Gas (Mechanical Vacuum Gauges) Bourdon Vacuum Gauge The inside of a tube which is bent into a circular arc (the so-called Bourdon tube) is connected to the vacuum system. Due to the effect of the external atmospheric pressure, the end of the tube bends more or less d...
Listed on Oct 26,2018
By admin
An Orifice Meter is basically a type of flow meter used to measure the rate of flow of Liquid or Gas, especially Steam, using the Differential Pressure Measurement principle. It is mainly used for robust applications as it is known for its durability and is very economical. As the name implies, it consists of an Orifice Plate which is the basi...
Listed on Oct 26,2018
By admin
An orifice meter is a conduit and a restriction to create a pressure drop. An hour glass is a form of orifice. A nozzle, venturi or thin sharp edged orifice can be used as the flow restriction. In order to use any of these devices for measurement it is necessary to empirically calibrate them. That is, pass a known volume through the meter and note ...
Listed on Oct 17,2018
By admin
A venturi tube contains a throat which is smaller in a diameter to the pipeline, into which it fits. The restriction diameter should not be less than 0.224 D, and not more than 0.742 D where D is the nominal bore diameter of the pipe. When the fluid flows through it, the pressure at the throat is lower than the upstream pressure The venturi fl...
Listed on Oct 17,2018
By admin
Fluid flow meters are divided into two functional groups – One measures quantity (Positive Displacement); the other measures rate of flow (Inferential.) All fluid meters, however, consist of two distinct parts, each of which has different functions to perform. The first is the primary element, which is in contact with the fluid, resulting in s...
Listed on Oct 12,2018
By admin
Paddle Type Level Switch is used for level detection for powder or bunk material in silo,hoppar,etc. The rotating paddle is continuously rotates by a motor. When this paddle contacts with the material, the force more than the rotating torque will be applied to the paddle and the rotation will stop. The Level Switch detects rotation ⇔ stop and outpu...
Listed on Oct 12,2018
By admin
Turbine Meters A turbine meter consists of a practically friction-free rotor pivoted along the axis of the meter tube and designed in such a way that the rate of rotation of the rotor is proportional to the rate of flow of fluid through the meter. This rotational speed is sensed by means of an electric pick-off coil fitted to the outside of th...
Listed on Oct 01,2018
By admin
Relays are the primary protection as well as switching devices in most of the control processes or equipments. All the relays respond to one or more electrical quantities like voltage or current such that they open or close the contacts or circuits. A relay is a switching device as it works to isolate or change the state of an electric circuit from...
Listed on Oct 01,2018
By admin
When selecting a Bauer gear motor, there are important factors that have to be taken into account beyond the size and speed of the motor. There are certain applications that may require a specific speed and torque to meet overall requirements, typically in industrial or assembly applications. There is a variety of options when it comes to Baue...
Listed on Sep 25,2018
By admin
Introduction A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a system or process. A valve controls system or process fluid flow and pressure by performing any of the Following functions. a) Stopping and starting fluid flow b) Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow c) Controlling the dire...
Listed on Sep 25,2018
By admin
A shutdown valve (also referred to as SDV or Emergency Shutdown Valve, ESV, ESD, or ESDV) is an actuated valve designed to stop the flow of a hazardous fluid upon the detection of a dangerous event. This provides protection against possible harm to people, equipment or the environment. Shutdown valves form part of a Safety Instrumented System....
Listed on Sep 18,2018
By admin
Flow measurement has a history of about 3000 years. It has been studied only in the last 200 years and in the last 30 years all the new techniques have evolved. There is now a wide variety of methods available to measure the flow of liquids, solids, gases and vapours. There are three different flow quantities to be measured :- The actual ...
Listed on Sep 18,2018
By admin
Ball Valve Ball valve is a quarter turn operated valve. The closure member is a spherical plug with a through hole. When the valve is in open state, the through hole is in-line with the fluid flow and hence, the fluid passes through it. The valve is closed by rotating the globe by 90 Deg. such that the hole now becomes perpendicular to the flo...
Listed on Sep 11,2018
By admin
Most instrument manuals state there is no calibration of the temperature sensor, but the temperature sensor must be checked to determine its accuracy. This accuracy check is performed at least once per year and the accuracy check date/information is kept with the instrument. If the accuracy check date/information is not included with the instr...
Listed on Sep 11,2018
By admin
The turbidity method is based upon a comparison of intensity of light scattered by a sample under defined conditions with the intensity of light scattered by a standard reference suspension. A turbidimeter is a nephelometer with a visible light source for illuminating the sample and one or more photo-electric detectors placed ninety degrees to the ...
Listed on Aug 28,2018
By admin
A major portion of all industrial measurement relates in some way to pressure in its several forms. Flow, for example, is often measured by determining the pressure that exists at two different points in a system. In a Bourdon system, pressure changes are used to produce the mechanical motion of a recording stylus. Pressure can also be used to...
Listed on Aug 28,2018
By admin
Wind chill is a phenomenon common to anyone who has ever lived in a cold environment. When the ambient air temperature is substantially colder than the temperature of your body, heat will transfer from your body to the surrounding air. If there is no breeze to move air past your body, the air molecules immediately surrounding your body will begin t...
Listed on Aug 20,2018
By admin
Differential pressure sensors are common in the process industry and cover a variety of applications. To understand what a differential pressure sensor is, it becomes important to put it in contrast to other pressure measurement types. The most common types of pressure measurement are absolute, gauge and differential. Gauge Pressure: Gauge pre...
Listed on Aug 20,2018
By admin
Measurement principle Continuous non‐contacting ultrasonic level measurement is based on the time of flight principle. An ultrasonic level instrument measures the time between sound energy transmitter from the sensor, to the surface of the measured material and the echo returning to the sensor. As the speed of sound is known through the ...
Listed on Aug 13,2018
By admin
An ultrasonic switch is a device that uses inaudible high-frequency sound (ultrasound) to detect the presence or absence of a liquid at a designated point. The device consists of an electronic control unit and a sensor. Ultrasonic level switches use the properties of sound transmission in vapor and liquids to detect liquid level. When sound travels...
Listed on Aug 13,2018
By admin
Pneumatic actuators are normally used to control processes requiring quick and accurate response, as they do not require a large amount of motive force. However, when a large amount of force is required to operate a valve (for example, the main steam system valves), hydraulic actuators are normally used. Although hydraulic actuators come in many de...
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