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Listed on Jan 15,2019
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Applied extensively in industrial process measurement and control, a rotameter is an instrument that uses a float of given density to establish, for any measurable flow rate, an equilibrium position within the fluid stream where the force of the flowing fluid equals the force of gravity. Let’s break that down a little. A rotameter has a tapere...
Listed on Jan 15,2019
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Control Valve Basics – Types Valves are used for thousands of purposes, from simple and mundane tasks, such as turning on the water in a kitchen sink, to tasks as important and difficult as controlling water flow through a nuclear reactor. Regardless of the application, valves are crucial in controlling the flow of liquids and gases in everyda...
Listed on Jan 02,2019
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Limit Switch is a switch operated by the motion of a machine part or presence of an object. They are used for control of a machine, as safety interlocks, or to count objects passing a point. Standardized limit switches are industrial control components manufactured with a variety of operator types, including lever, roller plunger, and whisker ...
Listed on Jan 02,2019
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Ultrasonic is a non-contact level measurement method that uses sound waves to determine the process material being measured. Ultrasonic transmitters operate by sending a sound wave, generated from a piezo electric transducer, to the media being measured. The device measures the length of time it takes for the reflected sound wave to return to ...
Listed on Dec 28,2018
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What is a vibration switch? A vibration switch is a device that recognizes the amplitude of the vibration to which it is exposed and provides some sort of response when this amplitude exceeds a predetermined threshold value. The switch response is typically an electrical contact closure or contact opening. The electrical contact may be either an e...
Listed on Dec 28,2018
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A Differential Pressure Switch, just like a regular pressure switch, is a simple electro-mechanical device that operates on the basic principles of levers and opposite forces. Mainly, they are used for sensing a difference between two points in a process. Three key elements are used in various combinations to manufacture different kinds of differen...
Listed on Dec 19,2018
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BRIEF EXPLANATION OF VIBRATION SENSOR PRINCIPLES: 1. VELOCITY SENSORS Electromagnetic linear velocity transducers : Typically used to measure oscillatory velocity. A permanent magnet moving back and forth within a coil winding induces an emf in the winding. This emf is proportional to the velocity of oscillation of the magnet. This permanent ...
Listed on Dec 19,2018
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What is a Valve Actuator? A valve actuator is the device that is joined to the valve that converts motive power e.g. pneumatic power, into movement of the valve stem. This movement opens, closes or modulates the valve. Types of Actuators Valve actuators are generally split into one of four types, dependant on the motive force they receive, n...
Listed on Dec 07,2018
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An instrumentation control system is an electrical, electronic, or programmable electronic system (E/E/PES) which may perform some or all of the following functions: Monitoring, recording and logging of plant status and process parameters; Provision of operator information regarding the plant status and process parameters; Provision ...
Listed on Dec 07,2018
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A safety control system or device is deemed to be safety related if it provides functions which significantly reduce the risk of a hazard, and in combination with other risk reduction measures, reduces the overall risk to a tolerable level, or if it is required to function to maintain or achieve a safe state for the equipment under control (EUC). ...
Listed on Nov 30,2018
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An on/off valve is the fluid equivalent of an electrical switch: a device that either allows unimpeded flow or acts to prevent flow altogether. These valves are often used for routing process fluid to different locations, starting and stopping batch processes, and engaging automated safety (shutdown) functions. Valve styles commonly used for o...
Listed on Nov 30,2018
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Flow Switch is a mechanical switch that is switched on or off in response to the flow or non-flow of a fluid such as air or water. The switch typically operates through the use of a paddle which gets displaced due to the force of fluid moving past it. The flow switch consists of a paddle system. which has a permanent magnet located at its uppe...
Listed on Nov 21,2018
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Functions of Temperature Detectors Although the temperatures that are monitored vary slightly depending on the details of facility design, temperature detectors are used to provide three basic functions: indication, alarm, and control. The temperatures monitored may normally be displayed in a central location, such as a control room, and may have ...
Listed on Nov 21,2018
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Thermocouples measure temperature and are used quite often in process controls. How They Work When wires of two different thermoelectrically homogeneous materials are joined at one end and placed in a temperature gradient, a thermoelectric voltage (EMF) is observed at the other end. The connection is called the measuring junction. On all ...
Listed on Nov 14,2018
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Pressure Detector Functions Although the pressures that are monitored vary slightly depending on the details of facility design, all pressure detectors are used to provide up to three basic functions: indication, alarm, and control. Since the fluid system may operate at both saturation and subcooled conditions, accurate pressure indication must be...
Listed on Nov 14,2018
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Vacuum Gauges where the Pressure Readings are Independent of the Type of Gas (Mechanical Vacuum Gauges) Bourdon Vacuum Gauge The inside of a tube which is bent into a circular arc (the so-called Bourdon tube) is connected to the vacuum system. Due to the effect of the external atmospheric pressure, the end of the tube bends more or less d...
Listed on Oct 26,2018
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An Orifice Meter is basically a type of flow meter used to measure the rate of flow of Liquid or Gas, especially Steam, using the Differential Pressure Measurement principle. It is mainly used for robust applications as it is known for its durability and is very economical. As the name implies, it consists of an Orifice Plate which is the basi...
Listed on Oct 26,2018
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An orifice meter is a conduit and a restriction to create a pressure drop. An hour glass is a form of orifice. A nozzle, venturi or thin sharp edged orifice can be used as the flow restriction. In order to use any of these devices for measurement it is necessary to empirically calibrate them. That is, pass a known volume through the meter and note ...
Listed on Oct 17,2018
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A venturi tube contains a throat which is smaller in a diameter to the pipeline, into which it fits. The restriction diameter should not be less than 0.224 D, and not more than 0.742 D where D is the nominal bore diameter of the pipe. When the fluid flows through it, the pressure at the throat is lower than the upstream pressure The venturi fl...
Listed on Oct 17,2018
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Fluid flow meters are divided into two functional groups – One measures quantity (Positive Displacement); the other measures rate of flow (Inferential.) All fluid meters, however, consist of two distinct parts, each of which has different functions to perform. The first is the primary element, which is in contact with the fluid, resulting in s...
Listed on Oct 12,2018
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Paddle Type Level Switch is used for level detection for powder or bunk material in silo,hoppar,etc. The rotating paddle is continuously rotates by a motor. When this paddle contacts with the material, the force more than the rotating torque will be applied to the paddle and the rotation will stop. The Level Switch detects rotation ⇔ stop and outpu...
Listed on Oct 12,2018
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Turbine Meters A turbine meter consists of a practically friction-free rotor pivoted along the axis of the meter tube and designed in such a way that the rate of rotation of the rotor is proportional to the rate of flow of fluid through the meter. This rotational speed is sensed by means of an electric pick-off coil fitted to the outside of th...
Listed on Oct 01,2018
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Relays are the primary protection as well as switching devices in most of the control processes or equipments. All the relays respond to one or more electrical quantities like voltage or current such that they open or close the contacts or circuits. A relay is a switching device as it works to isolate or change the state of an electric circuit from...
Listed on Oct 01,2018
By admin
When selecting a Bauer gear motor, there are important factors that have to be taken into account beyond the size and speed of the motor. There are certain applications that may require a specific speed and torque to meet overall requirements, typically in industrial or assembly applications. There is a variety of options when it comes to Baue...
Listed on Sep 25,2018
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Introduction A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a system or process. A valve controls system or process fluid flow and pressure by performing any of the Following functions. a) Stopping and starting fluid flow b) Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flow c) Controlling the dire...
Listed on Sep 25,2018
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A shutdown valve (also referred to as SDV or Emergency Shutdown Valve, ESV, ESD, or ESDV) is an actuated valve designed to stop the flow of a hazardous fluid upon the detection of a dangerous event. This provides protection against possible harm to people, equipment or the environment. Shutdown valves form part of a Safety Instrumented System....
Listed on Sep 18,2018
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Flow measurement has a history of about 3000 years. It has been studied only in the last 200 years and in the last 30 years all the new techniques have evolved. There is now a wide variety of methods available to measure the flow of liquids, solids, gases and vapours. There are three different flow quantities to be measured :- The actual ...
Listed on Sep 18,2018
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Ball Valve Ball valve is a quarter turn operated valve. The closure member is a spherical plug with a through hole. When the valve is in open state, the through hole is in-line with the fluid flow and hence, the fluid passes through it. The valve is closed by rotating the globe by 90 Deg. such that the hole now becomes perpendicular to the flo...
Listed on Sep 11,2018
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Most instrument manuals state there is no calibration of the temperature sensor, but the temperature sensor must be checked to determine its accuracy. This accuracy check is performed at least once per year and the accuracy check date/information is kept with the instrument. If the accuracy check date/information is not included with the instr...
Listed on Sep 11,2018
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The turbidity method is based upon a comparison of intensity of light scattered by a sample under defined conditions with the intensity of light scattered by a standard reference suspension. A turbidimeter is a nephelometer with a visible light source for illuminating the sample and one or more photo-electric detectors placed ninety degrees to the ...
Listed on Aug 28,2018
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A major portion of all industrial measurement relates in some way to pressure in its several forms. Flow, for example, is often measured by determining the pressure that exists at two different points in a system. In a Bourdon system, pressure changes are used to produce the mechanical motion of a recording stylus. Pressure can also be used to...
Listed on Aug 28,2018
By admin
Wind chill is a phenomenon common to anyone who has ever lived in a cold environment. When the ambient air temperature is substantially colder than the temperature of your body, heat will transfer from your body to the surrounding air. If there is no breeze to move air past your body, the air molecules immediately surrounding your body will begin t...
Listed on Aug 20,2018
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Differential pressure sensors are common in the process industry and cover a variety of applications. To understand what a differential pressure sensor is, it becomes important to put it in contrast to other pressure measurement types. The most common types of pressure measurement are absolute, gauge and differential. Gauge Pressure: Gauge pre...
Listed on Aug 20,2018
By admin
Measurement principle Continuous non‐contacting ultrasonic level measurement is based on the time of flight principle. An ultrasonic level instrument measures the time between sound energy transmitter from the sensor, to the surface of the measured material and the echo returning to the sensor. As the speed of sound is known through the ...
Listed on Aug 13,2018
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An ultrasonic switch is a device that uses inaudible high-frequency sound (ultrasound) to detect the presence or absence of a liquid at a designated point. The device consists of an electronic control unit and a sensor. Ultrasonic level switches use the properties of sound transmission in vapor and liquids to detect liquid level. When sound travels...
Listed on Aug 13,2018
By admin
Pneumatic actuators are normally used to control processes requiring quick and accurate response, as they do not require a large amount of motive force. However, when a large amount of force is required to operate a valve (for example, the main steam system valves), hydraulic actuators are normally used. Although hydraulic actuators come in many de...
Listed on Aug 03,2018
By admin
when an elastic transducer ( bourdon tube in this case ) is subjected to a pressure, it defects. This deflection is proportional to the applied pressure when calibrated. Description of Bourdon tube Pressure Gauge The main parts of this instruments are as follows: An elastic transducer, that is bourdon tube which is fixed and open at ...
Listed on Aug 03,2018
By admin
One of the most popular styles of single-fiber connector is the so-called “ST” style, which uses a quarter-turn locking barrel to secure the connector into its matching socket: Communication patch cables such as the one shown above come in pairs of fibers, one for receiving and one for transmitting. Note how the plastic strain-relief grips bet...
Listed on Jul 24,2018
By admin
The location of the RTD (thermowell), positioned downstream of the orifice plate so the turbulence it generates will not create additional turbulence at the orifice plate. The American Gas Association (AGA) allows for upstream placement of the thermowell, but only if located at least three feet upstream of a flow conditioner. A major reason fo...
Listed on Jul 24,2018
By admin
Firstly, I need to clarify, that a DP transmitter is not only used for measuring flow, as the user referred to in his question, to a DP flow transmitter. A differential pressure transmitter (or DP cell) literally measures any differential pressure across its High and Low pressure measuring ports, and provides an output proportional to the diff...
Listed on Jul 18,2018
By admin
What is the working principle of a pressure sensor? A pressure sensor works by converting pressure into an analogue electrical signal. The demand for pressure measuring instruments increased during the steam age. When pressure sensing technologies were first manufactured they were mechanical and used Bourdon tube gauges to move a needle and gi...
Listed on Jul 18,2018
By admin
A Solenoid valve is used wherever fluid flow has to be controlled automatically. They are being used to an increasing degree in the most varied types of plants and equipment. The variety of different designs which are available enables a valve to be selected to specifically suit the application in question. How is a solenoid operated valve bei...
Listed on Jul 18,2018
By admin
There are two key issues currently affecting the actuation industry: host system integration and functional safety. Host system integration In any plant installation, a key requirement is being able to smoothly integrate the actuators used for opening or closing valves with the plant’s automation system. While the mechanical interface between...
Listed on Jul 18,2018
By admin
A gear motor is a specific type of electrical motor that is designed to produce high torque while maintaining a low horsepower, or low speed, motor output. Gear motors can be found in many different applications, and are probably used in many devices in your home. Gear motors are commonly used in devices such as can openers, garage door opener...
Listed on Jul 03,2018
By admin
Solenoid valves are used to control the rate of flow in fluid and air powered tools, systems, and motors. Washing machines and gas boilers use these valves, as well as hydraulic pumps and air hammers because they are diverse enough to perform both simple and complex tasks with ease. Solenoid valves can be customized to suit specific needs and can b...
Listed on Jun 26,2018
By admin
Loop calibrators are a type of electrical calibrator specifically designed to troubleshoot 4-20 mA current loops. These versatile instruments are capable of measuring current, sourcing current to unpowered devices in a loop, as well as simulating the operation of loop-powered 4-20 mA transmitters. An analog current loop is an electrical signal...
Listed on Jun 26,2018
By admin
Incremental or Absolute? Positioning tasks require precise position values to monitor or control motion activity. In many applications position sensing is done using rotary encoders, also called shaft encoders or simply encoders. These sensors transform a mechanical angular position of a shaft or axle into an electronic signal that can be processe...
Listed on Jun 19,2018
By admin
Slice valves operate with a sliding gate that slices through the water flow. The operator pushes a plunger-type handle that pushes the gate through the opening. This gate fits into the flanges within the frame of the valve that form seals preventing the flow of liquid through the valve. The device is sometimes called a gate valve for its design fea...
Listed on Jun 19,2018
By admin
It’s all about revolution. Digital tachometers, and all tachometers, measure the revolutions of a spinning object to determine the rate at which it is spinning. Nearly all types of transportation vehicles, from planes to trucks to buses to trains to cars have tachometers. The instrument is also vital in troubleshooting machinery performance and con...
Listed on Jun 05,2018
By admin
Valves are one of those critical inventions that go unnoticed by many. They play an important role in our world by controlling, regulating, guiding and directing the flow of assorted types of liquids, gases, steam or flowing materials such as mill, grain, etc. Valves are made of steel, iron, steel, bronze or PVC and can handle high temperature...
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